Cardiology and therapy, Volume 13, Issue 1, 13 2 2024, Pages 69-87 The Clear Value of Coronary Artery Calcification Evaluation on Non-Gated Chest Computed Tomography for Cardiac Risk Stratification. Groen RA, Jukema JW, van Dijkman PRM, Bax JJ, Lamb HJ, Antoni ML, de Graaf MA

To enhance risk stratification in patients suspected of coronary artery disease, the assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC) could be incorporated, especially when CAC can be readily assessed on previously performed non-gated chest computed tomography (CT). Guidelines recommend reporting on patients' extent of CAC on these non-cardiac directed exams and various studies have shown the diagnostic and prognostic value. However, this method is still little applied, and no current consensus exists in clinical practice. This review aims to point out the clinical utility of different kinds of CAC assessment on non-gated CTs. It demonstrates that these scans indeed represent a merely untapped and underestimated resource for risk stratification in patients with stable chest pain or an increased risk of cardiovascular events. To our knowledge, this is the first review to describe the clinical utility of different kinds of visual CAC evaluation on non-gated unenhanced chest CT. Various methods of CAC assessment on non-gated CT are discussed and compared in terms of diagnostic and prognostic value. Furthermore, the application of these non-gated CT scans in the general practice of cardiology is discussed. The clinical utility of coronary calcium assessed on non-gated chest CT, according to the current literature, is evident. This resource of information for cardiac risk stratification needs no specific requirements for scan protocol, and is radiation-free and cost-free. However, some gaps in research remain. In conclusion, the integration of CAC on non-gated chest CT in general cardiology should be promoted and research on this method should be encouraged.

Cardiol Ther. 2024 2;13(1):69-87