Cardiology and therapy, Volume 11, Issue 1, 1 1 2021, Pages 81-92 Original Research: Long-Term Prognosis After ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients with a Prior Cancer Diagnosis. Heemelaar JC, Polomski EAS, Mertens BJA, Jukema JW, Schalij MJ, Antoni ML
It is unknown how long-term prognosis after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with a prior cancer diagnosis is impacted by cancer-related factors as diagnosis, stage, and treatment. We aimed to assess long-term survival trends after STEMI in this population to evaluate both cardiovascular and cancer-related drivers of prognosis over a follow-up period of 5 years.
In this retrospective single-center cohort study, patients with a prior cancer diagnosis admitted with STEMI between 2004 and 2014 and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were recruited from the STEMI clinical registry of our institution.
In the 211 included patients, the cumulative incidence of all-cause death after 5 years of follow-up was 38.1% (N = 60). The cause of death was predominantly malignancy-related (N = 29, 48.3% of deaths) and nine patients (15.0%) died of a cardiovascular cause. After correcting for age and sex, a recent cancer diagnosis (< 1 year relative to > 10 years, HRadj 2.98 [95% CI: 1.39-6.41], p = 0.005) and distant metastasis at presentation (HRadj 4.02 [1.70-9.53], p = 0.002) were significant predictors of long-term mortality. While maximum levels of cardiac troponin-T and creatinine kinase showed significant association with mortality (resp. HRadj 1.34 [1.08-1.66], p = 0.008; HRadj 1.36 [1.05-1.76], p = 0.019), other known determinants of prognosis after STEMI, e.g., hypertension and renal insufficiency, were not significantly associated with survival.
Patients with a prior cancer diagnosis admitted with STEMI have a poor survival rate. However, when the STEMI is optimally treated with primary PCI and medication, cardiac mortality is low, and prognosis is mainly determined by factors related to cancer stage.