Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, Volume 9, 22 4 2022, Pages 1012147 A percutaneous treatment strategy of an adult patient with a bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, and an exceptionally large aneurysm of a collateral artery: Case report and literature overview. Verheijen DBH, Stöger JL, van der Kley F, Schalij MJ, Jongbloed MRM, Vliegen HW, Kiès P, Egorova AD

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a congenital heart defect that is associated with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), ascending aorta dilatation, intracerebral aneurysms, and premature atherosclerotic disease. The first presentation during late adulthood is rare and is frequently driven by late sequelae. Hypertrophic collateral arteries can develop aneurysms which are at risk for spontaneous rupture, however, treatment recommendations for these aneurysms are scarce. Here, we describe the clinical course and percutaneous treatment strategy of a patient with a late diagnosis of a pin-point CoA, a BAV with moderate regurgitation, and an exceptionally large aneurysm of a collateral artery. A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis of a BAV with moderate aortic valve regurgitation and small vegetation (<5 mm) on the non-coronary cusp. Work-up revealed hypertension and adenocarcinoma in situ of the ascending colon, considered the bacteremia porte d'entrée, for which a curative hemicolectomy was performed. Echocardiography showed a narrowing of the aorta distal from the origin of the left subclavian artery with the antegrade diastolic flow with a pathognomonic "sawtooth" pattern and an estimated pressure gradient of >70 mmHg. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed a network of well-developed collateral arteries and a levoatriocardinal vein. One of the collateral arteries arising from the left subclavian artery revealed an exceptionally large aneurysmatic dilation (29 × 24 × 24 mm). The invasive assessment confirmed a hemodynamically significant CoA. Treatment involved balloon dilatation and placement of a covered stent at the site of the pin-point CoA and a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. No residual gradient over the CoA was observed. Antihypertensive drugs could be discontinued, and CTA performed 4 months later showed regression and thrombosis of the numerous collaterals and, importantly, thrombosis of the large aneurysm. This case illustrates the late diagnosis of CoA with associated congenital heart defects and late sequelae including hypertension, BAV endocarditis, coronary artery disease, and aneurysm formation of the extensive collateral network. The patient underwent pharmacological and percutaneous treatment, ultimately resulting in the alleviation of the CoA, normalization of the blood pressure, reduction of collateral flow, and thrombosis of the large aneurysm of the collateral artery.

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 12;9:1012147