Cited 238 times since 1981 (6 per year) source: Scopus Cardiovascular research, Volume 15, Issue 6, 01 June 1981, Pages 328-334 Continuous stroke volume and cardiac output from intra-ventricular dimensions obtained with impedance catheter. Baan J, Jong TT, Kerkhof PL, Moene RJ, van Dijk AD, van der Velde ET, Koops J

To improve assessment of ventricular function during cardiac catheterisation there should be available a continuous registration of stroke volume and cardiac output in addition to ventricular pressure. To obtain the desired volumetric quantities a catheter has been developed which measures changes in intraventricular dimensions by electrical impedance. For this purpose, the catheter is equipped with eight electrodes spaced over a distance equal to the long axis of the left ventricle into which it is introduced. A constant current is imposed between the outermost electrodes while the inner six are used to measure resistance of volume segments of the blood contained within the ventricular cavity. The difference in resistance at the beginning and end of ejection is proportional to the contribution of each segment to stroke volume, which follows from addition to the segmental terms. Calibration is obtained by measuring electrical conductivity of a blood sample. The catheter was tested over a tenfold range of cardiac output, both in vitro, using an artificial heart model, while performance in vivo was evaluated in 12 dogs. In the animals study, stroke volume and cardiac output from the catheter were compared with flows obtained with an electromagnetic flowmeter. In both studies, linear regression analysis showed excellent correlation of cardiac output (r = 0.99, n = 10 in vitro, r = 0.95, n = 126 in vivo) while the regression equations were close to those of identity. Very good correlation (r = 0.98, n = 28) was also obtained for stroke volumes on a beat to beat basis during arrhythmia. It is concluded that the catheter, which has great potential for application in man, fulfills its primary aim of continuously recording stroke volume and cardiac output.

Cardiovasc Res. 1981 Jun;15(6):328-334