European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology, Volume 49, Issue 5, 2 1 2023, Pages 990-995 A quantitative assessment of perfusion of the gastric conduit after oesophagectomy using near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green. Galema HA, Faber RA, Tange FP, Hilling DE, van der Vorst JR, Upper-GI ICG quantification study group


Anastomotic leakage is a severe complication after oesophageal resection with gastric conduit reconstruction. Poor perfusion of the gastric conduit plays an important role in the development of anastomotic leakage. Quantitative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green (ICG-FA) is an objective technique that can be used for perfusion assessment. This study aims to assess perfusion patterns of the gastric conduit with quantitative ICG-FA.


In this exploratory study, 20 patients undergoing oesophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction were included. A standardized NIR ICG-FA video of the gastric conduit was recorded. Postoperatively, the videos were quantified. Primary outcomes were the time-intensity curves and nine perfusion parameters from contiguous regions of interest on the gastric conduit. A secondary outcome was the inter-observer agreement of subjective interpretation of the ICG-FA videos between six surgeons. The inter-observer agreement was tested with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).


In a total of 427 curves, three distinct perfusion patterns were recognized: pattern 1 (steep inflow, steep outflow); pattern 2 (steep inflow, minor outflow); and pattern 3 (slow inflow, no outflow). All perfusion parameters were significantly different between the perfusion patterns. The inter-observer agreement was poor - moderate (ICC:0.345,95%CI:0.164-0.584).


This was the first study to describe perfusion patterns of the complete gastric conduit after oesophagectomy. Three distinct perfusion patterns were observed. The poor inter-observer agreement of the subjective assessment underlines the need for quantification of ICG-FA of the gastric conduit. Further studies should evaluate the predictive value of perfusion patterns and parameters on anastomotic leakage.

Eur J Surg Oncol. 2023 3;49(5):990-995