Annals of vascular surgery, Volume 93, 13 2 2023, Pages 283-290 Evaluation of the Angiosome Concept Using Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging with Indocyanine Green. Tange FP, Ferrari BR, van den Hoven P, van Schaik J, Schepers A, van Rijswijk CSP, van der Meer RW, Putter H, Vahrmeijer AL, Hamming JF, van der Vorst JR


The angiosome concept is defined as the anatomical territory of a source artery within all tissue layers. When applying this theory in vascular surgery, direct revascularization (DR) is preferred to achieve increased blood flow toward the targeted angiosome of the foot in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). This study evaluates the applicability of the angiosome concept using quantified near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG).


This study included patients undergoing an endovascular- or surgical revascularization of the leg between January 2019 and December 2021. Preinterventional and postinterventional ICG NIR fluorescence imaging was performed. Three angiosomes on the dorsum of the foot were determined: the posterior tibial artery (hallux), the anterior tibial artery (dorsum of the foot) and the combined angiosome (second to fifth digit). The angiosomes were classified from the electronic patient records and the degree of collateralization was classified based on preprocedural computed tomography angiography and/or X-ray angiography. Fluorescence intensity was quantified in all angiosomes. A subgroup analysis based on endovascular or surgical revascularized angiosomes, and within critical limb threatening ischemia (CLTI) patients was performed.


ICG NIR fluorescence measurements were obtained in 52 patients (54 limbs) including a total of 157 angiosomes (121 DR and 36 indirect revascularizations [IR]). A significant improvement of all perfusion parameters in both the directly and indirectly revascularized angiosomes was found (P-values between <0.001-0.007). Within the indirectly revascularized angiosomes, 90.6% of the scored collaterals were classified as significant. When comparing the percentual change in perfusion parameters between the directly and indirectly revascularized angiosomes, no significant difference was seen in all perfusion parameters (P-values between 0.253 and 0.881). Similar results were shown in the CLTI patients subgroup analysis, displaying a significant improvement of perfusion parameters in both the direct and indirect angiosome groups (P-values between <0.001 and 0.007), and no significant difference when comparing the percentual parameter improvement between both angiosome groups (P-values between 0.134 and 0.359). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed when comparing percentual changes of perfusion parameters in directly and indirectly revascularized angiosomes for both endovascular and surgical interventions (P-values between 0.053 and 0.899).


This study proves that both DR and IR of an angiosome leads to an improvement of perfusion. This suggests that interventional strategies should not only focus on creating in-line flow to the supplying angiosome. One can argue that the angiosome concept is not applicable in patients with LEAD.

Ann Vasc Surg. 2023 1;93:283-290