Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 19 3 2022, Pages CCR-22-0992 PD-1T TILs as a predictive biomarker for clinical benefit to PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC. Hummelink K, van der Noort V, Muller M, Schouten RD, Lalezari F, Peters D, Theelen WSME, Koelzer VH, Mertz KD, Zippelius A, van den Heuvel MM, Broeks A, Haanen JBAG, Schumacher TN, Meijer GA, Smit EF, Monkhorst K, Thommen DS


Durable clinical benefit to PD-1 blockade in NSCLC is currently limited to a small fraction of patients, underlining the need for predictive biomarkers. We recently identified a tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte (TIL) pool, termed PD-1T TILs, with predictive potential in NSCLC. Here, we examined PD-1T TILs as biomarker in NSCLC.

Experimental design

PD-1T TILs were digitally quantified in120 baseline samples from advanced NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 blockade. Primary outcome was Disease Control (DC) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were DC at 12 months and survival. Exploratory analyses addressed the impact of lesion-specific responses, tissue sample properties and combination with other biomarkers on the predictive value of PD-1T TILs.


PD-1T TILs as a biomarker reached 77% sensitivity and 67% specificity at 6 months, and 93% and 65% at 12 months, respectively. Particularly, a patient group without clinical benefit was reliably identified, indicated by a high negative predictive value (NPV) (88% at 6 months, 98% at 12 months). High PD-1T TILs related to significantly longer progression-free (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.24-0.63, p<0.0001) and overall survival (HR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.76, p<0.01). Predictive performance was increased when lesion-specific responses and samples obtained immediately before treatment were assessed. Notably, the predictive performance of PD-1TTILs was superior to PD-L1 and TLS in the same cohort.


This study established PD-1T TILs as predictive biomarker for clinical benefit to PD-1 blockade in advanced NSCLC patients. Most importantly, the high NPV demonstrates an accurate identification of a patient group without benefit.

Clin Cancer Res. 2022 7:CCR-22-0992