Netherlands heart journal : monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation, Volume 29, Issue Suppl 1, 16 3 2021, Pages 13-19 Impact of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Jewbali LSD, Hoogervorst-Schilp J, Belfroid E, Jansen CW, Asselbergs FW, Siebelink HJ


Hospitalised COVID-19 patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors appear to be at risk of poor outcome. It is unknown if these patients should be considered a vulnerable group in healthcare delivery and healthcare recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic.


A systematic literature search was performed to answer the following question

In which hospitalised patients with proven COVID-19 and with underlying CVD and cardiovascular risk factors should doctors be alert to a poor outcome? Relevant outcome measures were mortality and intensive care unit admission. Medline and Embase databases were searched using relevant search terms until 9 June 2020. After systematic analysis, 8 studies were included.


Based on the literature search, there was insufficient evidence that CVD and cardiovascular risk factors are significant predictors of mortality and poor outcome in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Due to differences in methodology, the level of evidence of all studies was graded 'very low' according to the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. It is expected that in the near future, two multinational and multicentre European registries (CAPACITY-COVID and LEOSS) will offer more insight into outcome in COVID-19 patients.


This literature review demonstrated there was insufficient evidence to identify CVD and cardiovascular risk factors as important predictors of poor outcome in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. However, patients with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors remain vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. As such, governmental and public health COVID-19 recommendations for vulnerable groups apply to these patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular Risk, Outcome, Covid-19

Neth Heart J. 2021 4;29(Suppl 1):13-19