Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE, Volume 44, Issue 1, 12 November 2020, Pages 120-128 Mechanical extraction of cardiac implantable electronic devices leads with long dwell time: Efficacy and safety of the step up approach. Lensvelt LMH, Egorova AD, Schalij MJ, Yilmaz D, Kennergren C, Bootsma M, van Erven L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the stepwise mechanical transvenous lead extraction approach in a patient population with chronically implanted transvenous leads with a long dwell time. From January 2014 till December 2018, all lead extractions with lead dwell time ≥5 years performed at our tertiary centre were retrospectively analysed. A total of 173 leads, from 78 patients (median age 68 years; 81% male) with a median dwell time of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 5) were extracted, with three or more leads in 42% of the patients. Right atrial leads
41%; right ventricular pacing leads
16%; implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads
31% (72% dual coil); coronary sinus leads
12%. The majority (75%) of the leads had an active fixation. Most frequent indication for extraction was pocket infection/erosion (76%). Overall clinical success was 97%, and complete procedural success was 93%. Venous patency, assessed with venous angiography, was well preserved in 93% of the cases. The overall procedural complication rate was 3.8% (2.6% major and 1.3% minor). Despite the complexity of the population and a very long dwell time (median 9 years), a clinical success rate of 97% was achieved with the stepwise mechanical approach. Analysis of impeding progression of pectoral extraction suggests that dense fibrosis and sharp lead curvature in the transvenous trajectory pose a challenge. Complication rate was low, and acute venous patency was generally well preserved.
Keywords: Device-related Complications, Cardiac Implantable Devices, Transvenous Lead Extractions, Mechanical Sheath, Tightrail, Extraction Tool