Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery, Volume 30, Issue 6, 01 June 2020, Pages 846-853 Treatment and outcome of plastic bronchitis in single ventricle patients: a systematic review. Harteveld LM, Blom NA, Hazekamp MG, Ten Harkel ADJ

Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a life-threatening complication in single ventricle (SV) patients of which the exact pathophysiology, outcome and optimal treatment are still unclear. This study aims to systematically review the literature to give insight into the characteristics, outcome and management options of SV patients with PB. A systematic review was conducted, using the electronic database PubMed to find records published up to August 2018, describing SV patients and PB in which characteristics, treatment and/or outcome were adequately described per case. A total of 577 records were screened of which 73 had sufficient data describing 133 SV cases with PB. Most cases had completed a Fontan palliation (n = 126) with a median interval between Fontan completion and diagnosis of PB of 18.4 months (Q1-Q3 5.0-36.3). Overall mortality was 15.2% and was associated with the diagnosis of PB within 12 months after Fontan palliation (5-year survival of 56.1% ≤12 months vs 94.8% >12 months, P = 0.002) and a higher age at Fontan completion (47.4 months for non-survivors vs 36.0 months for survivors, P = 0.015). Most patients received a combination therapy from 3 different treatment strategies, i.e. therapy for relief of airway obstruction, anti-inflammatory treatment and treatment to improve haemodynamics of the Fontan physiology (55.1%). In conclusion, SV patients who are diagnosed with PB within 12 months after Fontan palliation have a higher risk of mortality. Moreover, most cases received a combination therapy consisting of all 3 treatment strategies.

Keywords: Fontan Procedure, Single Ventricle, Bronchial Cast, Plastic Bronchitis

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2020 Jun;30(6):846-853