Cited 2 times since 2019 (1.8 per year) source: Scopus JACC. Clinical electrophysiology, Volume 5, Issue 4, 27 February 2019, Pages 480-489 Entropy as a Novel Measure of Myocardial Tissue Heterogeneity for Prediction of Ventricular Arrhythmias and Mortality in Post-Infarct Patients. Androulakis AFA, Zeppenfeld K, Paiman EHM, Piers SRD, Wijnmaalen AP, Siebelink HJ, Sramko M, Lamb HJ, van der Geest RJ, de Riva M, Tao Q


This study proposed entropy as a new late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance-derived parameter to evaluate tissue inhomogeneity, independent of signal intensity thresholds. This study hypothesized that entropy within the scar is associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), whereas entropy of the entire left ventricular (LV) myocardium is associated with mortality.


In patients after myocardial infarction, the heterogeneity of fibrosis determines the substrate for VA. Fibrosis in remote areas has been associated with heart failure and mortality. Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been used to delineate fibrosis, but available methods depend on signal intensity thresholds and results have been inconsistent.


Consecutive post-myocardial infarction patients undergoing late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance prior to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation were included. From cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, total scar size, scar gray zone, scar transmurality, and tissue entropy were derived. Patients were followed for appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and mortality.


A total of 154 patients (age 64 ± 10 years, 84% male, LV ejection fraction 29 ± 10%, 47% acute revascularization) were included. During a median follow-up of 56 (interquartile range

40 to 73) months, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy occurred in 46 patients (30%), and 41 patients (27%) died. From multivariable analysis, higher entropy of the scar (hazard ratio [HR]

1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]

1.0 to 3.5; p = 0.042) was independently associated with VA, after adjusting for multivessel disease, acute revascularization, LV ejection fraction, scar gray zone, and transmurality. Entropy of the entire LV was independently associated with mortality (


 3.2; 95%


1.1 to 9.9; p = 0.038).


High entropy within the scar was associated with VA and may indicate an arrhythmogenic scar. High entropy of the entire LV was associated with mortality and may reflect a fibrosis pattern associated with adverse remodeling.

Keywords: Entropy, Sudden death, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ventricular arrhythmia, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance, Late Gadolinium Enhancement, Diffuse Fibrosis

JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2019 Feb;5(4):480-489