Cited 6 times since 2019 (1.1 per year) source: EuropePMC Cardiology and therapy, Volume 8, Issue 1, 30 5 2019, Pages 29-41 Growth Differentiation Factor-15 Levels at Admission Provide Incremental Prognostic Information on All-Cause Long-term Mortality in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Bodde MC, Hermans MPJ, van der Laarse A, Mertens B, Romijn FPHTM, Schalij MJ, Cobbaert CM, Jukema JW


To investigate the additive prognostic value of growth differentiation factor (GDF-15) levels in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneously coronary intervention (pPCI) with 10-year mortality on top of clinical characteristics and known cardiac biomarkers.


Baseline serum GDF-15 levels were measured in 290 STEMI patients treated with pPCI in the MISSION! intervention trial conducted from February 1, 2004 through October 31, 2006. The incremental prognostic value of GDF-15 and NTproBNP levels was evaluated on top of clinical characteristics using Cox proportional hazards analysis, Chi-square models and C-index. Outcome was 10-year all-cause mortality.


Mean age was 59.0 ± 11.5 years and 65 (22.4) patients were female. A total of 37 patients died during a follow-up of 9.4 (IQR 8.8-10.0) years. Multivariable Cox regression revealed GDF-15 and NTproBNP levels above median to be independently associated with 10-year all-cause mortality [HR GDF-15, 2.453 (95% CI 1.064-5.658), P = 0.04; HR NTproBNP, 2.413 (95% CI 1.043-5.564), P = 0.04] after correction for other clinical variables. Stratified by median GDF-15 (37.78 pmol/L) and NTproBNP (11.74 pmol/L) levels, Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant better survival for patients with GDF-15 and NTproBNP levels below the median versus above the median. The likelihood ratio test showed a significant incremental value of GDF-15 (P = 0.03) as compared with a model with clinically important variables and NTproBNP. The C-statistics for this model improved from 0.82 to 0.84 when adding GDF-15.


GDF-15 levels at admission in STEMI patients are independently associated with 10-year all-cause mortality rates and could improve risk stratification on top of clinical variables and other cardiac biomarkers.

Cardiol Ther. 2019 1;8(1):29-41