Cited 26 times since 2011 (2.4 per year) source: Scopus Cardiovascular research, Volume 90, Issue 2, 13 2 2011, Pages 295-304 Antiproliferative treatment of myofibroblasts prevents arrhythmias in vitro by limiting myofibroblast-induced depolarization. Askar SF, Ramkisoensing AA, Schalij MJ, Bingen BO, Swildens J, van der Laarse A, Atsma DE, de Vries AA, Ypey DL, Pijnappels DA

Aims

Cardiac fibrosis is associated with increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, but the underlying proarrhythmic mechanisms remain incompletely understood and antiarrhythmic therapies are still suboptimal. This study tests the hypothesis that myofibroblast (MFB) proliferation leads to tachyarrhythmias by altering the excitability of cardiomyocytes (CMCs) and that inhibition of MFB proliferation would thus lower the incidence of such arrhythmias.

Methods and results

Endogenous MFBs in neonatal rat CMC cultures proliferated freely or under control of different dosages of antiproliferative agents (mitomycin-C and paclitaxel). At Days 4 and 9, arrhythmogeneity of these cultures was studied by optical and multi-electrode mapping. Cultures were also studied for protein expression and electrophysiological properties. MFB proliferation slowed conduction from 15.3 ± 3.5 cm/s (Day 4) to 8.8 ± 0.3 cm/s (Day 9) (n = 75, P < 0.01), whereas MFB numbers increased to 37.4 ± 1.7 and 62.0 ± 2%. At Day 9, 81.3% of these cultures showed sustained spontaneous reentrant arrhythmias. However, only 2.6% of mitomycin-C-treated cultures (n = 76, P < 0.0001) showed tachyarrhythmias, and ectopic activity was decreased. Arrhythmia incidence was drug-dose dependent and strongly related to MFB proliferation. Paclitaxel treatment yielded similar results. CMCs were functionally coupled to MFBs and more depolarized in cultures with ongoing MFB proliferation in which only L-type Ca(2+)-channel blockade terminated 100% of reentrant arrhythmias, in contrast to Na(+) blockade (36%, n = 12).

Conclusion

Proliferation of MFBs in myocardial cultures gives rise to spontaneous, sustained reentrant tachyarrhythmias. Antiproliferative treatment of such cultures prevents the occurrence of arrhythmias by limiting MFB-induced depolarization, conduction slowing, and ectopic activity. This study could provide a rationale for a new treatment option for cardiac arrhythmias.

Cardiovasc Res. 2011 1;90(2):295-304